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Before you can use a CD it must be formatted.

 What does formatting do?

1.  It prepares a CD for Write and Read process.
2.  Tests the CD to make sure all sectors are reliable and marks bad sectors.
3.  Creates internal address tables such that stored information to be located easily.
4.  It creates a 
File System  to organize the data on the CD for storing data.

How to format a CD in Windows 7:
Window 7 uses Universal Disc Format (UDF)  and it uses packet writing method.

1. Insert an unformatted disc into your computer's CD/DVD drive.
2. A dialog box opens select "Burn Files to Disc"



3. It will open a new panel to enter a name for the CD.



Eneter a name and make sure  "Like a USB flash Drive" is selected.

Click on "Next" button. it will display a progress windows


4. When the formatting is completed you should be able to view the newly formatted CD in Explorer.

Note:
Usually a CD-R capacity is 700 mega bytes. After format some of the space will be taken by Table Of Contents (TOC).
Make sure a newly formated CD is in CD drive, Open Explorer, right click on the CD drive (usually D: drive) , select properties.

 
you will see that about  30 Maga Bytes already used enen though you have not copied any files to the CD-R.




A CD-R can be written only once and here are three ways of writing to CD-R.

1. Disc-at-once (DAO) writes the entire disc within one session. Multiple tracks can be written with DAO, but there are no gaps.This burn without interruption method creates hidden unnumbered tracks before your proceeding audio track begins. If you use DAO, you cannot go back and record more data on the disc at another time.

2. Track-at-once (TAO) is a recording option where tracks are recorded one at a time, but it gives you the choice of writing more data at a later time.

3. Session-at-once is a recording method typically incompatible with standard CD devices, but will function with computer drives. Multiple data sessions can be completed before the disc is finalized. Finalization renders the disc incapable of further recordings.